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The study of the functionality of the nervous system is required for the understanding of biochemical and electrophysiological reactions in order to implement diagnostic as well as therapeutic neuromodulation techniques. These techniques would address the disorders associated with brain functionality. Electrical and chemical-based observational, stimulation, and perturbation techniques have evolved over the years but are limited by issues which can be summarized as non-selective activation of brain tissues, multipath current flow, artifacts interference and noise, tissue damage through the electrode geometry, and corrosion. Inhibition of neuronal circuitry is not possible using electrodes and limited temporal resolution of the recording electrodes. Optogenetics as a neuromodulation tool has both spatial and temporal specificity. This addresses most of the limitations in the electrical and chemical neuromodulation. Optogenetics combines gene-based neuromodulation with optical stimulation or inhibition to have high spatio-temporal resolution with respect to activation of neural tissues as well as recording of neural tissue responses. At PPCRC the research focuses on using LED based flexible optrode design, development and fabrication.